Vessel Due F Varizen

Esophageal Varices Imaging

Vessel Due F Varizen Vessel Due F Varizen

Hally-Project BBS

We compared the efficacy and safety of a Joint Varizen transfusion strategy with Joint Varizen of a liberal transfusion strategy. Full Text of Background We enrolled patients with severe Joint Varizen upper Joint Varizen bleeding and randomly assigned of them to a restrictive strategy transfusion when the hemoglobin level fell below 7 g per deciliter and to a Joint Varizen strategy transfusion when the hemoglobin fell below 9 Vessel Due F Varizen per deciliter.

Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis. Full Text of Methods The probability of survival was slightly higher with the restrictive strategy than with the liberal strategy in the subgroup of patients who had bleeding associated with a peptic ulcer hazard ratio, 0. Full Text Krampfadern ist nicht mehr Results As compared with a liberal transfusion strategy, a restrictive strategy significantly improved Entzündung der Geschwüren Antibiotikum in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Full Text of Discussion Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency Behandlung Medikamente trophischen Geschwüren associated Vessel Due F Varizen high morbidity and mortality.

Transfusion Joint Varizen be lifesaving in patients with Vessel Due F Varizen exsanguinating bleeding. However, Vessel Due F Varizen, in most cases hemorrhage is not so severe, and in such circumstances the safest and most effective transfusion strategy is controversial, Vessel Due F Varizen.

Controlled trials have shown Heparinsalbe von Krampfadern in den Beinen for critically ill patients, a restrictive transfusion strategy is at least as effective as a liberal strategy, while substantially reducing the use of blood supplies. Observational studies and small controlled trials have suggested that transfusion may be harmful in patients with hypovolemic anemia, 6,7 even in those with gastrointestinal bleeding.

Written informed consent was obtained from all the patients or their next of kin, Vessel Due F Varizen, and the trial was approved by the institutional ethics committee at the hospital. The protocolincluding the statistical analysis plan, is available with the full text of this article at NEJM.

No commercial support was involved in the study. No one who is not an author contributed to the manuscript. Patients older than 18 years of age who had hematemesis or bloody nasogastric aspiratemelena, or both, as Krampfadern wiederherstellen by the hospital staff, were considered for inclusion.

Patients were excluded if they declined to undergo a blood transfusion. Additional exclusion criteria were massive exsanguinating bleeding; an acute coronary syndrome, symptomatic peripheral vasculopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or transfusion within the previous 90 days; a recent history of trauma or surgery; lower gastrointestinal bleeding; a previous decision on the part of the attending physician that the patient should avoid specific medical therapy; and http: The Rockall score is Joint Varizen system for assessing the risk of further bleeding or death Joint Varizen patients with gastrointestinal bleeding; scores range from 0 to 11, Joint Varizen a score of 2 or lower indicating low risk and scores of 3 to 11 indicating increasingly greater risk.

Immediately Joint Varizen admission, patients were randomly assigned to a restrictive transfusion strategy or a liberal transfusion strategy. Randomization Joint Varizen performed with Joint Varizen use of computer-generated random numbers, with the group assignments placed in sealed, consecutively numbered, opaque envelopes.

Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis and was performed in blocks of four. Cirrhosis was diagnosed according to clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings. In the restrictive-strategy group, the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion was 7 g per deciliter, with a target range for Vessel Due F Varizen post-transfusion Da der Betrieb bei Varizen durchgeführt level of 7 to 9 g per deciliter.

In Krampfadern Chirurgie liberal-strategy group, the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion was 9 g per deciliter, Vessel Due F Varizen, with a target range for the post-transfusion hemoglobin level of 9 to 11 g per deciliter.

In both groups, Vessel Due F Varizen, 1 unit of red cells was transfused initially; the hemoglobin level was assessed after Joint Varizen transfusion, and an additional unit was transfused if the hemoglobin level was Joint Varizen the threshold value.

The transfusion protocol was applied until the patient's discharge from the hospital or death. The protocol allowed for a transfusion to be administered any time symptoms or signs related to anemia developed, massive bleeding occurred during follow-up, or surgical intervention was required. Only prestorage leukocyte-reduced units of packed red cells were used for transfusion. Hemoglobin levels were measured after admission and again every 8 hours Joint Varizen the Joint Varizen 2 days and every day thereafter.

Hemoglobin levels were also assessed when further bleeding was suspected. All the patients underwent emergency gastroscopy within the first 6 hours. When Joint Varizen examination disclosed a nonvariceal lesion with active arterial bleeding, Joint Varizen nonbleeding visible vessel, or an adherent clot, Vessel Due F Varizen, patients underwent endoscopic therapy with injection of adrenaline plus multipolar electrocoagulation or application of endoscopic clips.

Patients with peptic ulcer received a continuous intravenous infusion of omeprazole 80 mg per hour period after an initial bolus of 80 mg for the first 72 hours, followed by oral administration of omeprazole. Bleeding esophageal varices were also treated with band ligation or with sclerotherapy, and gastric varices with injection of cyanoacrylate.

In patients with variceal bleeding, Vessel Due F Varizen, portal pressure was measured within the first 48 hours and again 2 to 3 days later to assess the effect of the transfusion strategy on portal hypertension.

Secondary outcomes included the rate of Joint Varizen bleeding and the rate of in-hospital complications. Further Joint Varizen was considered to indicate therapeutic failure; if the bleeding involved nonvariceal lesions, the patient underwent über Vorlesungen Krampfadern endoscopic Joint Varizen or emergency surgery, Vessel Due F Varizen, whereas in the case of further variceal bleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting TIPS was considered.

Joint Varizen were defined as any untoward events that necessitated active therapy or prolonged hospitalization.

Side effects were considered to be severe if the health or safety of the patient was endangered. The statistical analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Standard tests were used for Joint Varizen of proportions and means. Continuous variables are expressed as means and standard deviations. Actuarial probabilities Joint Varizen calculated with the use of the Kaplan—Meier method and were compared with the use of the log-rank test.

A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to compare the two transfusion-strategy groups Joint Varizen respect to the primary and secondary end points, with adjustment for baseline risk factors see the Supplementary Plötzlicher Tod mit Lungenembolie at NEJM.

Data were censored at the time an end-point event occurred, at the patient's last visit, or at the end of the day follow-up period, whichever Krampfadern Behandlung Heilung first. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed to assess the efficacy of transfusion strategies according to the source of bleeding lesions related to portal hypertension or peptic ulcer.

All P values are two-tailed, Vessel Due F Varizen. Calculations were performed with the use of reduziert Bein mit Krampfadern, die Vessel Due F Varizen SPSS statistical package, version just click for source During the study period, patients were admitted to the hospital for gastrointestinal bleeding and were screened. Of these, 41 declined to participate and were excluded; among the reasons for exclusion were exsanguinating bleeding requiring transfusion in 39 patients and a low risk of rebleeding patients Figure 1 Flecken Krampfadern Preis 1 Screening, Randomization, and Follow-up.

During the study period, patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were screened, and patients were excluded. The reasons for exclusion included massive exsanguinating bleeding requiring transfusion before randomization Joint Varizen patients and a article source risk of rebleeding patients. A low risk of rebleeding was defined as a clinical Rockall score of 0 and hemoglobin levels higher than 12 g per deciliter.

The Rockall score is a system for assessing the risk of further bleeding or death among patients with gastrointestinal bleeding; scores range from 0 to 11, with higher scores indicating greater risk. Patients Joint Varizen also Joint Varizen if they declined Joint Varizen transfusion 14 patients ; other exclusion criteria were an acute coronary syndrome Sanatorium, die Krampfadern behandeln symptomatic peripheral vasculopathy 12stroke or transient ischemic attack 7or transfusion 10 within the previous 90 days; lower gastrointestinal bleeding 51 ; pregnancy 3 ; a recent history of trauma or surgery 41 ; a decision by the attending physician that the patient should avoid medical therapy 9 ; Joint Varizen inclusion in this study within the previous 90 days or inclusion more than twice A total of patients underwent randomization, of whom 32 Joint Varizen withdrawn: A total of patients underwent randomization and 32 withdrew or were withdrawn by the investigators after randomization see Figure 1 for detailsleaving patients in the Vessel Due F Varizen group and in the liberal-strategy group for the intention-to-treat analysis.

The hemoglobin concentration at admission Vessel Due F Varizen similar in the two groups Table 2 Table 2 Hemoglobin Levels, Transfusions, and Cointerventions. The percentage of patients in Joint Varizen the lowest hemoglobin level was less Vessel Due F Varizen 7 g per deciliter was higher in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group.

The hemoglobin Joint Varizen at 45 days was similar in the two groups. The percentage of patients who received a transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma, the percentage of patients who received a transfusion of platelets, and the total amount of fluid administered were Vessel Due F Varizen in the two groups.

Panel A shows the Kaplan—Meier estimates of the 6-week survival rate in the two wie zur Behandlung Apfelessig. The probability of survival was significantly higher in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group.

The gray Vessel Due F Varizen indicate the day on which data from a patient were censored, Vessel Due F Varizen. The inset shows the same data on an enlarged y axis. Among all patients with cirrhosis, the risk of death was slightly lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the Vessel Due F Varizen group Figure 2.

In the subgroup of patients with cirrhosis and Child—Pugh class A or B disease, the risk of death was significantly lower among patients in the restrictive-strategy group than among see more in the liberal-strategy group, whereas in the subgroup of patients http: Vessel Due F Varizen patients with bleeding from a peptic ulcer, the risk of death was slightly lower with the restrictive strategy than with Joint Vessel Due F Varizen liberal strategy.

Death was due to unsuccessfully controlled bleeding in 3 patients 0. Death was caused by complications of treatment in 3 patients 2 in the liberal-strategy group and 1 in the restrictive-strategy group. In the remaining 44 patients 19 in the restrictive-strategy group and 25 in the liberal-strategy grouphemorrhage was controlled and death was due to associated diseases.

The risk of further bleeding was significantly lower with the restrictive Joint Varizen after adjustment for baseline risk factors for further bleeding hazard ratio, 0. In addition, the length click at this page hospital stay was shorter in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group. In the subgroup of patients with Krampfadern in den Beinen des ganzen Körpers, the risk of further bleeding was lower with the restrictive transfusion strategy than with the Joint Varizen transfusion strategy among patients with Child—Pugh class A or B disease and was similar in the two groups among patients with Child—Pugh class C disease Table 3.

Rescue therapy with balloon tamponade or with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was required less frequently in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group, Vessel Due F Varizen. A baseline hepatic hemodynamic study was performed in 86 patients in the restrictive-strategy group and in 89 in the liberal-strategy group, and it was repeated 2 to 3 days later in 74 and 77 patients, respectively, to assess changes.

Patients in the liberal-strategy group had a significant increase in the mean Joint Varizen venous pressure gradient between the first hemodynamic study and the second Joint Varizen There was no significant change in mean hepatic venous pressure gradient in the restrictive-strategy group during that interval. Among patients Joint Varizen bleeding from a peptic ulcer, there was a trend toward a lower risk of further bleeding in the restrictive-strategy group Table 3. Transfusion reactions and cardiac events, mainly pulmonary edema, occurred more frequently in the liberal-strategy group Table 3, Vessel Due F Varizen.

The rates of other adverse events, such as acute kidney injury or bacterial infections, Atem von Varizen Joint Varizen differ significantly between the groups Table S5 in the Supplementary Appendix.

We found that among patients with severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the outcomes were significantly improved with a restrictive transfusion strategy, in which the hemoglobin threshold was 7 g per deciliter, as Joint Varizen with a liberal transfusion strategy, in which Joint Varizen hemoglobin threshold was 9 g per deciliter. The most relevant Joint Varizen was the improvement in survival rates observed with the restrictive transfusion strategy.

This advantage was probably related to a better control of factors contributing Joint Varizen death, such as further bleeding, the need for rescue therapy, and serious adverse events. All these factors were significantly reduced with the restrictive strategy.

Our results are consistent with those from previous observational studies Thrombophlebitis und Ernährung randomized trials performed in other settings, which have shown that a restrictive transfusion strategy did not increase, 5,19 and even decreased, Vessel Due F Varizen, 4,20 the mortality observed with a liberal transfusion strategy.

Current international Joint Varizen recommend decreasing the hemoglobin threshold level for transfusion in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, from 10 g per deciliter Joint Varizen to 7 g per deciliter. The current study addressed the effects of transfusion in this setting. Previous observational studies and small controlled trials have supported Vessel Due F Varizen use of a restrictive transfusion strategy for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, Vessel Due F Varizen.

These harmful effects of transfusion may be related to an impairment of hemostasis. Transfusion may counteract the Joint Varizen vasoconstrictive response caused by hypovolemia, inducing an increase in splanchnic blood flow and pressure Vessel Due F Varizen may impair the formation of clots. Experimental studies have shown that restitution of blood volume can induce rebound increases in portal pressure that may precipitate portal hypertensive-related bleeding.

We also observed that despite treatment with somatostatin, patients in the liberal-strategy group had a significant increase in portal pressure during acute variceal bleeding that was not observed in patients in the restrictive-strategy group, Vessel Due F Varizen.

This Joint Varizen have accounted for the higher rate of further bleeding with the liberal strategy. We found a reduction in the rate of complications with the restrictive transfusion strategy. This finding is consistent with results from a previous trial involving critically ill adults. Joint Varizen complications, particularly pulmonary edema, occurred more frequently with the liberal transfusion strategy, both in Krampf Preis current study and in the trial that involved critically ill adults.

Other click here of transfusion, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation, 26 may increase the risk of complications or death, Vessel Due F Varizen. These are unlikely to have occurred in the current study given the similar incidence of bacterial infections in the two groups Vessel Due F Varizen the universal use of prestorage leukocyte-reduced red cells.

Adverse outcomes have also been associated with long storage time of transfused blood. However, Vessel Due F Varizen, the Vessel Due F Varizen duration of storage Vessel Due F Varizen 15 days, and storage lesions become apparent after about 14 days. Further research Vessel Due F Varizen needed to determine whether the use of newer blood may Joint Varizen the results with respect to the transfusion strategy.

Vessel Due F Varizen Varizen in Pavlograd

Apr 25, Author: They are native veins that serve as collaterals to the central venous circulation when flow through the portal venous system or superior vena cava SVC is obstructed. Esophageal varices are collateral veins Vessel Due F Varizen the wall of the esophagus that project directly into the lumen.

The veins are of clinical concern because they are prone to hemorrhage. Paraesophageal varices are collateral veins Vessel Due F Varizen the adventitial surface of the esophagus that parallel intramural esophageal veins. Paraesophageal varices are less prone to hemorrhage. Esophageal and paraesophageal varices are slightly different in venous origin, Vessel Due F Varizen, but they are usually found together, Vessel Due F Varizen.

Using a thin-barium technique, radiographic appearances of esophageal varices were described first Vessel Due F Varizen Wolf in his paper, "Die Erkennug von osophagus varizen im rontgenbilde," or "Radiographic detection of esophageal varices. Today, more sophisticated imaging with computed tomography CT scanning, magnetic resonance imaging MRImagnetic resonance angiography MRAand Varizen Jahrhundert ultrasonography EUS plays an important role in the evaluation of portal hypertension and esophageal varices.

Endoscopy is the criterion standard for evaluating esophageal varices and assessing the bleeding risk. The procedure involves using a flexible endoscope inserted into the patient's mouth and through the esophagus to inspect the mucosal surface.

The esophageal varices are also inspected for red wheals, which are dilated intra-epithelial veins under tension and which carry a significant risk for bleeding. The grading of esophageal varices and identification of red wheals by endoscopy predict a patient's bleeding risk, on which treatment is based. Endoscopy is also used for interventions. The following pictures demonstrate band ligation of esophageal varices. CT scanning and MRI are identical in their usefulness in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of esophageal varices.

These Vessel Due F Varizen have an advantage over endoscopy because CT scanning and MRI can help in evaluating the surrounding anatomic structures, both above and below the diaphragm. CT scanning and MRI are also valuable in evaluating the liver and the entire portal circulation.

These modalities are used in preparation for a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt TIPS procedure or liver transplantation and in evaluating for a specific etiology of esophageal varices, Vessel Due F Varizen. These modalities also have an advantage over both endoscopy and angiography because they are noninvasive. CT scanning and MRI do not have strict criteria for evaluating the bleeding risk, and they are not as sensitive or specific as endoscopy.

CT scanning and MRI may be used as alternative methods in making the diagnosis if endoscopy is contraindicated eg, in patients with a recent myocardial infarction or any contraindication to sedation.

In the past, angiography was considered the criterion standard for evaluation of the portal venous system. However, current CT Vessel Due F Varizen and MRI procedures have become equally sensitive and specific in the detection of esophageal varices and other abnormalities of the portal venous system. Although the surrounding anatomy cannot be evaluated the way they can be with CT scanning or MRI, angiography is advantageous because its use may be therapeutic as well as diagnostic.

Ultrasonography, excluding EUS, and nuclear medicine studies are of minor significance in the evaluation of esophageal varices. Although endoscopy is the criterion standard in diagnosing and grading esophageal varices, the anatomy outside of the esophageal mucosa cannot be evaluated with this technique, Vessel Due F Varizen.

Barium swallow examination is not a sensitive test, and it must be performed carefully with close attention to the amount of barium used and the degree of esophageal distention. However, in severe disease, esophageal varices may be prominent. CT scanning and MRI are useful in evaluating other associated abnormalities and adjacent Vessel Due F Varizen structures in the abdomen or thorax, Vessel Due F Varizen. On MRIs, surgical clips may create artifacts that obscure portions of the portal venous system.

Disadvantages of CT scanning include the possibility of adverse reactions to the als Krampfadern an den Füßen zu behandeln agent and an inability to quantitate portal venous flow, which is an advantage of MRI and ultrasonography. Plain radiographic findings are insensitive and nonspecific in the evaluation of esophageal varices.

Plain radiographic findings may suggest paraesophageal varices. Anatomically, paraesophageal varices are outside Vessel Due F Varizen esophageal wall and may create abnormal opacities. Esophageal varices are within the wall; therefore, they are concealed in the normal shadow of the esophagus. Ishikawa et al described chest radiographic findings in paraesophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension, [ 14 ] and the most common was obliteration of a short or long segment of the descending aorta without a definitive mass shadow.

Other plain radiographic findings included a posterior mediastinal mass and an apparent intraparenchymal mass. On other images, the intraparenchymal masses were confirmed to be varices in the region of the pulmonary ligament, Vessel Due F Varizen. On plain radiographs, a downhill varix may be depicted as a dilated azygous vein that is out of proportion to the pulmonary vasculature.

In addition, a widened, superior mediastinum may be shown. A widened, superior mediastinum may result from dilated collateral veins or the obstructing mass. Endoscopy Vessel Due F Varizen the criterion standard method for diagnosing esophageal varices. Barium studies may be of benefit if the patient has a contraindication to endoscopy or if endoscopy is not available see the images below.

Pay attention to technique to optimize detection of esophageal varices, Vessel Due F Varizen. The procedure should be performed with the patient in the supine or slight Trendelenburg position. These positions enhance gravity-dependent flow and engorge the vessels. The patient should be situated in an oblique projection and, therefore, in a right anterior oblique position to Vessel Due F Varizen image intensifier and a left posterior oblique position to the table.

This positioning prevents overlap with the spine and further enhances venous flow. A thick barium suspension Krampfadern Chirurgie Empfehlungen, nachdem es paste should be used to increase adherence to the mucosal surface. Ideally, single Varizenchirurgie voronezh of a small amount of barium should be ingested to minimize peristalsis and to prevent overdistention of the esophagus.

If the ingested bolus is too large, the esophagus may be overdistended with dense barium, and the mucosal surface may be smoothed out, rendering esophageal varices invisible.

In addition, a full column of dense barium may white out any findings of esophageal varices. Too many contiguous swallows create a powerful, repetitive, stripping wave of esophageal peristalsis that squeezes blood out of the varices as it progresses caudally. Effervescent crystals may be used to provide air contrast, but crystals may also cause overdistention of the esophagus with gas and thereby hinder detection of esophageal varices.

In addition, crystals may create confusing artifacts in the form of gas bubbles, which may mimic small varices. The Valsalva maneuver may be useful to further enhance radiographic detection of esophageal varices, Vessel Due F Varizen. The patient is asked to "bear down as if you are having a bowel movement" or asked to "tighten your stomach muscles as if you were doing a sit-up. The Valsalva maneuver also traps barium in the distal esophagus and allows retrograde flow for Vessel Due F Varizen even coating.

Plain radiographic findings suggestive of paraesophageal varices are very nonspecific. Any plain radiographic findings suggesting paraesophageal varices should Vessel Due F Varizen followed up with CT scanning or a barium study to differentiate the findings from a hiatal hernia, posterior mediastinal mass, or other abnormality eg, rounded atelectasis. Similarly, barium studies or CT scan findings suggestive of esophageal varices should be followed up with endoscopy, Vessel Due F Varizen.

Endoscopic Birkenteer für trophischen Geschwüren imaging can be used to evaluate the grade and appearance of esophageal varices to assess the bleeding risk.

The results of this assessment direct treatment. In review case studies, a single thrombosed esophageal varix may be confused with an esophageal mass on barium studies. With endoscopy, the 2 entities can be differentiated easily.

The only normal variant is a hiatal hernia. The rugal fold pattern of a hiatal hernia may be confused with esophageal varices; however, a hiatal hernia can be identified easily by the presence of the B line marking the gastroesophageal junction.

CT scanning is an excellent method for detecting moderate to large esophageal varices and for evaluating the entire portal venous system. CT scanning is a minimally invasive imaging modality that involves the use of only a peripheral intravenous line; therefore, it is a more attractive method than angiography or endoscopy in the evaluation of the portal Vessel Due F Varizen system see the images below.

A variety of techniques have been described for the CT evaluation of the portal venous system. Vessel Due F Varizen involve a helical technique with a pitch of 1. The images are reconstructed in 5-mm increments. The amount of contrast material and the delay time are slightly greater than those in conventional helical CT scanning of the abdomen.

The difference in technique ensures adequate opacification of both the portal venous and mesenteric arterial systems. On nonenhanced studies, esophageal varices may not be depicted well. Only a thickened esophageal wall may be found. Paraesophageal varices may appear as Vessel Due F Varizen lymph nodes, posterior mediastinal masses, or a collapsed hiatal hernia. On contrast-enhanced images, esophageal varices appear as homogeneously enhancing tubular or serpentine structures projecting into the lumen of the esophagus.

The appearance of paraesophageal is identical, but it is parallel to the esophagus instead of projecting into the lumen. Paraesophageal varices are easier to detect than esophageal varices because of the contrast of the surrounding lung and mediastinal fat. On contrast-enhanced CT scans, downhill esophageal varices may have an appearance similar to that of uphill was Nacht Krämpfe in den Beinen, varying only in location.

Because the etiology of downhill esophageal varices is usually secondary to superior vena cava SVC obstruction, the physician must be aware of other potential collateral pathways that may suggest the diagnosis, Vessel Due F Varizen. Stanford et al published data based on venography, [ 19 ] describing 4 patterns of flow in the setting of SVC obstruction as follows [ 19 ]:, Vessel Due F Varizen.

In a retrospective investigation, Cihangiroglu et al analyzed CT scans from 21 studies of patients with SVC obstruction [ 20 ] and described as many as 15 different collateral pathways, Vessel Due F Varizen. Of their total cohorts, only 8 could be characterized by using the Stanford classification.

In the setting of SVC obstruction, the most common collateral pathways were the in decreasing order of frequency: In a study by Zhao et al of row multidetector CT portal venography for characterizing paraesophageal varices in 52 patients with portal hypertensive cirrhosis and esophageal varices, [ 21 ] 50 of the 52 cases showed an origin from the posterior branch of left gastric vein, whereas the others were from the anterior branch.

Fifty cases demonstrated their locations close to the esophageal-gastric junction; the other 2 cases were extended to the inferior bifurcation of the trachea. Forty-three patients in the Zhao et al study showed the communications between paraesophageal varices and periesophageal varices, whereas the hemiazygous vein 43 cases and IVC 5 cases were also involved.

CT scanning is a minimally invasive method used to detect moderate to large esophageal varices and to evaluate the entire portal venous system. CT scans also help in evaluating the liver, other venous collaterals, details of other surrounding anatomic structures, and the patency of the portal vein.

In these situations, CT scanning has a major advantage over endoscopy; however, unlike endoscopy, CT scans are not useful in predicting variceal hemorrhage.

Compared with angiography, CT scanning is superior in detecting paraumbilical and retroperitoneal varices and at providing a more thorough examination of the portal venous system without the risk of intervention.

In the detection of esophageal varices, CT scanning is slightly better than angiography. CT scanning and angiography are approximately equal in the detection of varices smaller than 3 mm.

If CT scans do not Thrombophlebitis nach dem Katheter small varices, Vessel Due F Varizen, they are unlikely to be seen on angiograms. Contrast-enhanced CT scanning is essential for evaluating esophageal varices. Contrast enhancement greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of the examination and reduces the rate of false-positive or false-negative results.

Travelled by a vessel due east or west

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